CBD use is a new holistic trend in treating a variety of health conditions in pets these days (and in people to). With the stigma that has been attached to cannabis finally being shed, more and more health benefits are being discovered about this amazing substance.
The Endocannibinoid System:
Inside all mammals is an intricate network of receptors that play important roles in health, healing, and homeostasis. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) was discovered in the early 1990s, but evolutionary evidence indicates that some version of an ECS has been preserved in all vertebrates (as well as sea squirts and nematodes) for at least 600 million years, suggesting that these receptors and the substances that bind to them play a crucial role in the functioning of life. There are three main receptors associated with the ECS: CB1, CB2, and TRPV1. According to Raphael Mechoulam, the chemist who first isolated THC in the 1960s, these receptors are most abundant in the brain and they are not found everywhere – they persist in specific areas that are involved in important bodily processes like coordination & movement, emotions, memory, reduction of pain, and reproduction. CB1 was discovered in 1990 and is cited as one of the most common receptors found in the brain, again a testament to this system’s key role in neurological processes. CB2 was the second receptor to be discovered. It is largely found in immune cells, although it can be found in other parts of the body including the digestive system and peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 is involved in pain response, inflammation, and regulation of body temperature. It is known as the attachment site for capsaicin – the compound responsible for the burning sensation we associate with chili peppers.
The receptors mentioned above are nothing without the substances that attach to and activate them – the endogenous cannabinoids that our bodies produce. The most studied of these endocannabinoids are AEA (nicknamed anandamide after the Sanskrit word for “bliss”) and 2-AG. Both can attach to CB1 and CB2, although AEA prefers CB1 and 2-AG prefers CB2. Dustin Sulak, an Osteopath who uses cannabis in his practice, describes these endocannabinoids as keys that open the same locks (receptors). Depending on which keys are used, the locks will open to different doors. This system, which is responsible for maintaining various bodily processes, can become imbalanced in various ways: receptors can be over or under active and endocannabinoid levels can be too low or too high. It’s interesting to note that in individuals with some cancers like breast, gliomas, and lymphomas, cells tend to have more CB1 and CB2 receptors. Some researchers think that this phenomenon is part of the body’s effort to fix the disorder. As research into this system continues, scientists are looking into the relationship between the ECS and certain diseases. The following table taken from a review article about the ECS lists various conditions in humans and their associated effects on the ECS: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684164/
If the ECS is imbalanced, what can be done to bring it back to normal? Medications, alternative therapies, supplements, and life-style choices can all influence an individual’s ECS. In animal studies, certain opiates and steroids enhanced endocannabinoid activity. In mice & rats, supplements and alternative therapies have been shown to influence the ECS: probiotics modulated CB1 activity and acupuncture increased CB2 activity in skin tissues. Intense exercise has been found to increase AEA levels in both dogs and humans – scientists think that this may account for the “runner’s high” that is apparent after heavy exercise. This idea of supplementing a troubled ECS brings us to the elephant in the room: cannabis and the phytocannabinoids that are found so abundantly in this plant.
What is CBD?
Phytocannabinoids are substances found in plants (most notably in Cannabis sativa) that are able to stimulate the same ECS receptors mentioned previously. There are at least 113 known phytocannabinoids in the cannabis plant; the most well-known and studied of these phytocannabinoids is THC but in recent years, this molecule’s non-psychoactive counterpart, CBD, has received much media attention. CBD or cannabidiol was first isolated in 1963 by Raphael Mechoulam – one year before the chemist elucidated the structure of THC. Both substances can modulate the ECS, but CBD does not alter the mind or behavior in the same way THC does. THC attaches directly to CB1 and CB2, much like the endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG. CBD’s effects are achieved in a different manner: the molecule affects these receptors, but not by directly attaching to them in the same way as THC and AEA.
Newer research indicates that CBD does attach to CB1—just not at the same receptor site as THC or AEA. By attaching to a different area, it is thought that CBD can change the shape of the receptor and thus influence how this receptor will interact with the other substances that bind to it. CBD can also influence the ECS in other ways: it can suppress the enzyme that breaks down AEA, thereby prolonging the endocannabinoid’s effects. It can also directly attach to TRPV1 and other receptors that play roles in the cardiovascular and neurological systems.
CBD’s ability to influence the ECS may account for the historical and anecdotal evidence that suggests its positive role in a number of conditions including: Dravet’s syndrome, some cancers, and various types of pain. In pre-clinical studies involving animal models, CBD has been shown to have the following properties: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-nausea, anticonvulsant, anti-anxiety and neuroprotective. CBD is also anti-proliferative in regards to certain cancer cells.
Hemp and Marijuana: What’s the difference?
Hemp and marijuana are both derived from the same plant species: Cannabis sativa. Within C. sativa are many plant varieties that are bred for various purposes. Plants grown to produce fiber and seed products are called “hemp” and plants grown for medicinal or recreational purposes (traditionally, a high THC content) are referred to as “marijuana.” These definitions have let to the conventional notion that marijuana products are high in THC while hemp products contain little or no THC and are high in CBD. As the cannabis industry continues to grow and research attempts to further elucidate genetic differences between cannabis and hemp, this terminology and how we classify cannabis plants could (and should) change.
For policymakers, a limited and often misinformed knowledge in cannabis genetics makes differentiating hemp and marijuana a difficult and superficial task. In the 1970’s Canadian scientist Ernest Small published a taxonomic report in which he drew an arbitrary line: he decided that 0.3% THC in a sifted batch of cannabis flowers was what determined the difference between hemp and marijuana. This decision, written 30 years ago in obscurity has had far reaching ramifications for how countries all over the world regulate cannabis. In the US, any cannabis plant with a THC content higher than 0.3% is deemed marijuana and therefore federally illegal.
Cannabidiol, Canines, and Anecdotal Evidence:
In 1991, Harvey et al. compared the metabolism of CBD in rats, dogs, and humans (1). While they did find that CBD is metabolized differently among these animals, they concluded that overall, the way these animals metabolized the CBD showed the same trends. The human and canine CBD metabolic process may vary, but this has not stopped pet owners from using hemp products in an attempt to combat the symptoms and diseases that both species seem to share.
In the spring of 2016, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) published a study that investigated the growing trend of pet owners who use hemp products on their pets. What they found suggests that some pet owners believe that hemp products help alleviate numerous conditions with minimal side effects.
The authors of this study conducted a survey of visitors to one hemp product company website for one month in 2015. Of the 631 respondents who said they use hemp products on their dogs, the majority indicated that they use them for conditions diagnosed by their veterinarian, with the most common being cancer, seizures, anxiety, and arthritis. They also reported that these products were moderate to very helpful in improving their pet’s well-being and that they had a positive impact in relieving pain and anxiety, as well as helping with sleep. Side effects reported were minimal: sedation and over-active appetite.
Overall, owners seem to be using hemp because they either prefer “natural products” and want to supplement conventional therapies. While this study group was limited and subject to the biases of each individual pet owner, the findings bring to light some interesting trends and reinforce much of the anecdotal evidence reported by media outlets of cannabis’ ability to mitigate certain disorders.
 Harvey, D. J., Samara, E., & Mechoulam, R. (1991). Comparative metabolism of cannabidiol in dog, rat and man. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 40(3), 523-532.
Resources and Links:
Medical Marijuana & CBD:
- Comprehensive Resource on CBD
- Dr. Sanjay Gupta’s CNN Special on Medical Marijuan Titled “Weed”
- WebMD: Medical Marijuana: What the Research Shows
- National Cancer Institute on Cannabis & Cannabinoids
Cannabis for Dogs & Cats:
- Book: Cannabis and CBD Science for Dogs
- Book: Pot for Pets
- Dr Becker Interview With Cannabis Expert, Dr. Rob Silver
- Dr. Rob Silver’s website on cannabis for pets
- BARk Magazine Article: Medical Cannabis: Is It Good for Our Dogs 9.2015
- Bay Woof Article: Medical Marijuana for Pets by Dr. Gary Richter
- Dogs Naturally Magazine Article: Cannabis for Your Dog
- NY Times Article: Pets on Pot
- Cannabis for Intractable Epilepsy by Dr. Narda Robinson
Thank you Holistic Hound for providing us with so much useful information!
Sat. & Sun. Feb. 18th & 19th
9:00am – 5:00PM
– Sonoma County Fairgrounds –
1350 Bennett Valley Road
Santa Rosa, CA
Adults $5; children 6-12 $3; Under 5, Free.
There will be Feline agility competitions, Household pet competitions, Costume contest, Vendors, and lots more!!
For more information visit the Santa Rosa Cat Show website Here
It never hurts to have an emergency plan for your family, the resources on the link below will help include your furry family in that plan. It’s always a good idea to be prepared.Pet And Animal Emergency Planning Website
Are you interested in starting your own back yard flock? Or maybe just want to know the legalities of owning chickens within Santa Rosa City limits?
The first Friday of each summer month is Yappy Hour at The Barlow in Sebastopol! Bring your leashed pup and join the FREE summer festivities!
From 4-7pm the 4 Barlow wineries – MacPhail Family Winery, La Follette Wines, Marimar Estate and Windgap Wines – will donate 50% of their tasting fees to Sonoma Humane Society! Sip fantastic wines while your pup bellies up to the Barlow Biscuit Bar, with biscuits donated from local pet stores. Enter for a chance to win phenomenal prizes donated from The Barlow shops, restaurants and wineries. A different band on tap each month, live music in the courtyard will keep everyone sipping and shimmying along The Barlow Wine Trail. A different theme for each month’s Yappy Hour – dress yourself and your pup in theme and take selfies in the Yappy photo booth.
Sebastopol, CA 95472
April 18th – 1:00 pm at the SRJC Shone Farm
(7450 Steve Olson Lane – Forestville, CA 95436)
SRJC Shone Farm presents Hoofbeats in the Vineyard, an afternoon all about Horses, Wine, and Shopping!
This event is a benefit to support the horses, students and programs of Equi-Ed Therapeutic Equestrian in Santa Rosa, and Shone Farm Equestrian, the equine program of Santa Rosa Junior College. www.equi-ed.org and www.shonefarm.com/equestrian/
Event will feature horse performances, educational speakers, Shone Farm wine and olive oil tasting, and horse related vendors!
Tickets are $25.00 and are available here at Western Farm Center or online at Hoofbeats in the Vineyard Tickets
Parasite Control (external)
For those of you that are raising your flock organically or just want to stay away from some of the harsh chemicals, here are a few things that can help rid your flock of these buggers and keep them away.
Keeping a clean and dry environment for your poultry is paramount to controlling both internal and external parasites and maintaining a healthy flock. Parasites can be brought in by a number of sources, Wild birds and rodents are probably the most common so keeping on top of rodent control and minimizing access to your coop by wild birds will help. The following will help deter or eliminate external parasites on the bird and around the coop.
The two most common categories of external parasites in chickens are mites and poultry lice. Mites can be grey, dark brown or reddish in color and can often be seen along feather shafts and underneath roosts after dark. Mites are active at night when they venture out to leech blood from chickens. With its moist, rich blood supply, the vent area is a favorite feeding ground of mites. Poultry lice are fast-moving, 6 legged, flat insects with round heads that live only on the chicken and its feathers. They are beige or straw colored and are typically found at the base of feather shafts near the vent. Poultry lice feed on dead skin and other debris such as feather quill casings. Poultry lice are NOT the same as human head lice and people cannot contract lice from chickens.
• Diatomaceous Earth (DE)
Diatomaceous Earth is a natural powder made of microscopic diatoms (fossilized seashells) that can be sprinkled around the coop and nest boxes to kill external parasites like mites, lice, and pretty much any kind of creepy crawler. Be careful not to over do it and make a dusty environment because even though feed grade DE is safe to ingest it can cause irritation to their respiratory system.
• Wormwood, Peppermint, Citronella, or Lemongrass plants
These natural plants may help repel parasites. Chickens will use as hiding and will peck at leaves and brush against which will help repel external parasites.
• Linseed oil or Mineral oil, and Petroleum jelly for Scaly Leg Mites
Scaly leg mites are microscopic insects that live underneath the scales on a chicken’s lower legs and feet. They dig tiny tunnels underneath the skin, eat the tissue and deposit crud in their wake. The result is thick, scabby, crusty-looking feet and legs. The longer the mites reside under the chicken’s leg scales, the more discomfort and damage they inflict; an unchecked infestation can result in pain, deformities, lameness and loss of toes.
1) soak the feet and legs in warm water
2) dry with a towel, gently exfoliating any dead, loose scales.
3) dip feet and legs in oil which suffocates the mites.
4) wipe off oil and slather affected area with petroleum jelly.
The petroleum jelly should be reapplied several times each week until the affected areas return to normal. It may take several months for mild to moderate cases to resolve.
Parasite Control (internal)
As with external parasites, keeping a clean dry living area is just as important with internal parasites (worms).
• Diatomaceous Earth (DE)
As long as you are using feed grade DE, you can add it to their food at a 2% ratio to control internal parasites (worms)
• Raw/Unfiltered/Unpasteurized Apple Cider Vinegar
Apple Cider Vinegar acts as a tonic and aids in internal parasite elimination. Apple cider vinegar flushes out forming infections and supports immune system. It also improves the digestive health of the chickens by maintaining proper pH levels in the digestive tract, increases calcium absorption, kills germs that may cause respiratory illnesses, keeps water free of bacteria, disinfects chicken coop, and repels flies and ants. ACV can also act as an antiseptic and milk antibiotic. How much and how often varies but some people put 1 to 2 tablespoon of ACV to every gallon one week out of the month. It should be given in a plastic water container because the ACV will rust the metal and galvanized waterers.
Add 6-8 cloves of garlic in water overnight. Chickens won’t usually eat raw garlic but you can leave the chunks in the water and see if they start liking the taste, or leave crushed garlic as a free choice option. Take out any other waterers and place every few days. You can also add garlic powder to their feed daily (2% ratio). Using garlic in conjunction with other remedies might have better results. Garlic has anti-parasite and antibacterial properties.
Planting seed potatoes is a fun and cost effective way to add more fresh produce to your table. There are a variety of ways to plant them, most requiring only a small area to grow a large amount of potatoes. They are very adaptable and will most often times produce a respectable crop, even when the soil conditions and growing seasons are less than perfect. Potatoes always do best with lots of sun. They are aggressively rooting plants, and you will find that they will yield the best crop when planted in a light, loose, well-drained soil. Potatoes prefer a slightly acidic soil with a PH of 5.0 to 7.0. Always keep your potato patch weed-free for best results. Potatoes should be rotated in the garden, never being grown in the same spot until there has been a 3-4 year absence of potatoes to allow the nutrients to build back up. (planting something like our OSB-Organic Soil Booster mix and tilling it back in can accelerate the reintroduction of nutrients)
♦ Plant seed potatoes (pieces of whole potato or a small whole potato, with at least 2 eyes per piece) 0-2 weeks after last spring frost.
♦ If you are cutting up potato pieces for planting, do so a 1-2 days ahead of time. This will give them the chance to form a protective layer, both for moisture retention and rot resistance.
♦ You may start planting earlier, as soon as soil can be worked, but be aware that some crops will be ruined by a frost.
♦ Spread and mix in rotted manure or organic compost in the bottom of the trench before planting.
♦ Plant seed potatoes one foot apart in a 4-inch deep trench, eye side up.
Baby potatoes typically can be harvested 2-3 weeks after the plants have finished flowering. Gently dig around the plants to remove potatoes for fresh eating, being careful not to be too intrusive. Try to remove the biggest new potatoes and leave the smaller ones in place so they can continue to grow. Only take what you need for immediate eating. Homegrown new potatoes are a luxury and should be used the same day that they are dug. Potatoes that are going to be kept for storage should not be dug until 2-3 weeks after the foliage dies back. Carefully dig potatoes with a sturdy fork and if the weather is dry, allow the potatoes to lay in the field, unwashed, for 2-3 days. This curing step allows the skins to mature and is essential for good storage. If the weather during harvest is wet and rainy, allow the potatoes to cure in a dry protected area like a garage or covered porch.
If your dogs are anything like mine, trips to the groomers are not high on their “to do” list. In fact, they hate it! Unlike a relaxing mani-pedi , our dogs can often find trips to the groomers to border on the traumatic.
Especially if the grooming is done at the vet. I know I certainly would have a harder time relaxing if I was getting my nails done at my doctors office. Of course we have to take care of our dogs cuticle needs one way or another, but many people do not realize that you can tend to your puppies paws all on your own.
That way you can be sure that your pooch can relax in a calm, familiar, loving atmosphere where it can feel safe.
Taking over your dog’s grooming is a great way to improve their lives, increase your connection with them and to save a few bucks while you are at it.
Here are a couple of pointers to make it a painless experience for everyone:
- The more you touch your dog’s paws the better.If they get used to it in general, it’s not so alarming when it’s showtime.
- Rest your dog (or as much of them as possible) in your lap when you’re getting ready to trim. Give them a little massage by rubbing the pads of their feet. Press on one of the toe pads to extend the claw.
- Press on one of the toe pads to extend the claw.
- Be sure to avoid the pink tissue (called the quick) within the nail, since it’s painful and startling to them when you trim too closely.
- If they really don’t enjoy it at first, you can even try trimming just one nail a day to get them used to the process slowly.
Bird Related Non-Profits
1.) Bird Rescue of Sonoma County 707-838-2659 Swallows, Swifts, Crows, Ravens, advice only
2.) Pacific Wildlife Project 1-949-831-1178 Pelicans, sea birds “All volunteer – treats more than 2,000 animals a year. Our goal is to give back some of what we take from the environment and to respect the natural balance between all living things.” http://www.pacificwildlife.org/
3.) The Bird Rescue Center 3430 Chanate Road, Santa Rosa 707-523-2473 Wild native bird rescue and rehab. Our purpose is to assist the public in the rescue of injured, orphaned or ill birds. http://www.birdrescuecenter.org/
4.) The Kenwood Wildlife Center 171 Pythian Road, Santa Rosa 707-575-1000 Owl and bird rescue/rehab/relocation. Promotes wildlife stewardship through education, scientific investigation and rehabilitation www.wildlife-center.org
Dog and Cat Related Non-Profits
1.) Wine Country Greyhound Adoption PO Box 6266, Santa Rosa 95406 1-800-924-7397 Adoption and fostering of greyhounds. dedicated to finding caring, permanent homes for retired racing greyhounds, and to providing support and guidance for the adopted dogs and their families. We endeavor to educate the public of the plight of these wonderful dogs and demonstrate what loving companions they make. www.winecountrygreyhounds.com
2.) Big Dog Rescue Big Dog Rescue Penngrove, CA 94951 (707) 665-0332 firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.homelesshounds.us
3.) NorCal Golden Retriever Rescue 405 El Camino Real Suite 420 Menlo Park, CA 94025-5240 650-615-6810 http://www.golden-rescue.org
4.) Bulldog Rescue of Northern California
5.) Northern California Sled Dog Rescue PO Box 30877 Walnut Creek, CA 94598 Rescue@NorSled.org 800-471-5822
6.) Herd It Through The Grapevine (707) 583-9583 email@example.com http://www.hittgv.org -Herding Dog Rescue
7.) Green Dog Rescue Project 10342 Old Redwood Hwy Windsor, Ca. 95492 (707) 433-4377 firstname.lastname@example.org http://greendogproject.org -interesting organization, rehabilitates/adopts
8.) Canine Companions for Independence National Headquarters: 1-866-CCI-DOGS (224-3647) P.O. Box 446 Santa Rosa, CA 95402-0446 www.cci.org Cats 1.) Feline Rescue of No. Calif. Inc. P.O. Box 215, Cloverdale, CA 95425 707-494-5544 Adoption/spay/neuter strays and semi-ferals. We are a “shelter without walls” and “animal control with a heart,” operating with a tiny budget and no paid staff or administrative overhead. http://www.feline-rescue.com/
9.) Forgotten Felines 1814 Empire Industrial Ct #F, Santa Rosa 707-576-7999 www.forgottenfelines.com Spay/neuter adoption and cat colony care 3.) Little Paws Rescue (707) 318-8354 Email: email@example.com Services: Cat Rescue and Adoptions
10.) Countryside Rescue 3410 Guerneville Road, Santa Rosa 707-542-5582 http://www.countrysiderescue.com
8.) Petaluma Animal Shelter 840 Hopper Street, Petaluma Tues – Fri 1 ~ 6pm ,Sat 12 ~ 6pm 707-778-4396 www.petalumaanimalshelter.org
11.) Healdsburg Animal Shelter 570 Westside Road, Healdsburg 707-431-3386 cat/dog rescue adoption no kill policy http://www.healdsburgshelter.org/
Wildlife and Misc
1.) Bright Haven Sebastopol. For BrightHaven’s location, please call: 707-578-4800 www.brighthaven.org – Sanctuary for Elderly/Disabled Animals Fray’s Organization?
2.) Friends of the Animals of the Redwood Empire Rohnert Park 707-538-9098 www.faireonline.org Provide programs to help pets and pet owners. FAIRE currently offers a reduced cost pet spay/neuter program to the residents of Cotati, Penngrove, Rohnert Park, and the Sebastopol area. -Already link to WFC
3.) So Co Animal Care and Control 1247 Century Court, Santa Rosa 707-565-7100 www.sonoma-county.org/shelter Domestic and livestock care and rescue. Finds homes for adoptable animals, helps owners find lost animals, pet licensing, rabies control, field services for injured, distressed and abused animals.
4.)Sonoma County Wildlife Rescue 403 Mecham Road, Petaluma 707-526-9453 www.scwilldliferescue.org Mammal and Bird Rescue Guided tours of our facilities are held on Saturdays adults $5.00 donation Kids $3.00 donation
5.) Wildlife Fawn Rescue 19201 Sonoma Hwy #105 Sonoma, CA 95452 707-931-4550 www.fawnrescue.org Deer and Fawn rehab. Answers to question when you find a fawn on their web site. All Wildlife Fawn Rescue’s fawns come to us due to human interference. Therefore, we feel a deep obligation to restore them to health and return them to their natural habitat where they belong.
6.)Jack Rabbits and Cottontails 707-869-8212